2016 has been a big year for development, and by “development” I mean the process of getting new homes built, or any other new buildings for that matter.
In the last “development update” post for the year, I wanted to look back at some of the highlights which you might have missed. You can click through to these at the bottom of the RCG Development Tracker page.
- January focused on retail. “Up until 2007, the retail sector was on a roll, and new shopping centres were being built all over the place. That changed when the recession hit in 2008 [but] 2015-2016 sees the biggest expansion since the GFC”.
- In March, I covered some research I did with RCG, and some other housing stuff. “In the long term [attached homes will] make up at least 50% of the new homes we build”. I’ve picked that in 2017, we’ll consent more of those than detached houses. Will we get there? Hard to say at this point.
- June was all about housing. I looked at the pipeline for ‘attached dwellings’, which I’ll update in the new year.
- July compared construction trends for Auckland and Christchurch
- August focused on Stonefields, a 2,500-home development. “Looking at Stonefields today, you could be fooled into thinking it’s almost finished, but the reality is it’s not even halfway”.
- September covered office development across Auckland (most of it is in the city centre)
- November looked at some of the housing projects which haven’t gone ahead, for various reasons.
Tracking housing and other projects
The RCG Development Tracker has an interactive map, now showing 827 projects across the country, including every brownfields Special Housing Area, big growth nodes like Hobsonville Point and Stonefields, plus billions of dollars’ worth of retail, office and accommodation developments.
It also shows Auckland’s Rapid Transit Network – the trains, the Northern Busway, plus some new links which will be built in the next few years such as the City Rail Link (now thankfully underway) and AMETI busway (which continues to languish). The Northwestern busway isn’t on there, as it’s even further away and doesn’t have any funding yet.*
In Auckland, we’re building some of everything. Shopping centres, offices, industrial buildings; hotels and other accommodation; and of course homes of all types and sizes. Apartments, terraces, retirement villages, and “traditional” detached houses (more on those later). Just about everything is booming. This year I’ve written on the tourism boom, migration boom, international education boom and construction crunch (which is really a boom as well).
So those are all positive, I guess, but there are issues that come with them. The big issue being a shortage of housing, with real effects on people’s quality of life. Other issues being high construction costs, and what looks like low wage/ productivity/ real income growth (so we’re not that much better off on a ‘per capita’ basis). Plus, there are some wobbles starting to emerge: house prices flattening or starting to fall, and signs of real problems in the international education industry.
How many homes are we really building?
Most months, I put together a graph showing the number of building consents for new homes. This is a good indicator of how many homes are going to be built. By the time a development gets its building consent approved, it already has planning approvals, and the design is pretty much complete. The developer has 12 months to start building (otherwise the consent expires), and almost all consents do eventually turn into homes.
Here’s the latest consents data, which shows that 9,800 new homes were consented in the 12 months to October 2016:
There’s obviously a lag between building consents being approved and the home being completed. Historically, the average lag is about six months, but this lag is getting much longer. Only 7,700 homes were completed in the 12 months to June 2016, but 9,251 homes were consented in 2015, and 7,632 were consented in 2014.
So, consents do get converted into homes, but we’re well behind on doing it.
Why the delays?
There are two reasons for the delays. One is that builders everywhere are busy, so they’re struggling to put enough resources together.
The other reason is that apartments take longer to build than terraces, and terraces take longer to build than detached houses. As Auckland builds a larger share of attached dwellings, the lag between consents and completions would be getting bigger even if builders weren’t flat out. At a guess, we probably need to allow at least two years for apartments from consent to completion, and at least one year for terraces.
So does that mean that we need to build more detached houses if we want to solve Auckland’s housing crisis? Surprisingly, the answer is no – in the long term, we’ll get more homes built if we focus on attached homes, like apartments and terraces.
There’s nothing very traditional about the detached houses being built today. They average a whopping 235 square metres – what is that, six bedrooms? – and they’re often double storey, with complicated shapes compared to the brick-and-tile boxes of the past. Plus, they’re mainly on the edges of the city. Affordable housing they are not.
Apartments and terraces, of course, tend to be much smaller in size. Although they cost a bit more to build on a ‘per square metre’ basis (especially for apartments), they tend to be cheaper overall.
And on that note, have a great summer everyone, take care when getting around and remember to wear sunblock!
* Motorways aren’t shown; they get enough attention already. Suffice it to say, the government is widening pretty much any motorway they can, and trying to put new motorways anywhere they can, and the costs are never questioned.
I’ve just updated the RCG Development Tracker for November – it’s now got almost 800 developments listed, across all property sectors but with a focus on higher density residential.
The ones which didn’t make it
In the last month, we’ve had a bit of media coverage about developments being cancelled. It’s always sad when a project doesn’t proceed, especially for first home buyers who put down deposits, and were looking forward to owning their own home. They’ll get their deposit back, but in the meantime property prices have kept going up, and their plans for moving home are disrupted.
Unfortunately, developments being cancelled (or put on hold, or reworked) is not new. No development is a sure thing, and some won’t go ahead, despite the glitzy marketing and the flowery statements from real estate agents. It’s part of a healthy market where some things work and some things don’t.
CBRE summed this up well when they said that cancellations boil down to “developers launching the wrong project, at the wrong place, at the wrong price”. I’d add “wrong time” to that list – some projects might have worked if they’d been a bit earlier or a bit later – but it underscores that projects can fall over if they don’t have all the right ingredients.
CBRE counted 31 apartment projects which have been shelved since 2013, making about 15% of the total launched since then. Many of these were well covered in the Herald. As a few examples:
- Flo Avondale. The cancellation of this one sparked the media look at other stalled developments;
- Springpark, which had a troubled history over the last few years. The property was sold and has now emerged as Richmond, with a different developer and with a different plan for the later stages;
- Mt Richmond Mews, cancelled earlier this year;
- Soto Apartments, marketed for a while in 2013-2014;
- The Grove in Albany. This project was marketed from 2013 onwards, and didn’t actually have resource consent. It was eventually consented for 50 homes, rather than the 65 proposed. The property was sold in 2015 and has re-emerged as Verdant Lane;
- We’ve also had the case of the Rose Garden Apartments, which are well under construction, although they’re taking much longer to build than initially expected. Here, the original off-the-plan purchasers have been asked to agree to higher prices than what they signed up for, or have their contracts cancelled. It’s a sad turn of events, and can’t be good for buyer confidence. It’s even more surprising in this case, given that Rose Garden is stage one of a multi-stage development;
- Going back to 2014, there was “Xanadu”, which adopted the unusual marketing technique of being an over-50s complex. A new developer took over, and put together new plans for the site, now known as Union Green.
There are also cases where the developer has had to take a more cautious approach – scaling back their plans, or pulling a project off the market to wait for a better time. Some examples are 88 Broadway and Orakei Bay Village, both by Equinox Group. At 88 Broadway, Equinox was planning to demolish the existing building on Broadway for a large master-planned development. They then decided to retain the building instead, and have refurbished it for offices and retail. At some point, new plans will presumably emerge for the rest of the site.
At Orakei Bay Village, apartment plans have been put on hold for now, and some old buildings are being refurbished for retail tenants. Putting some work into existing buildings is a lower cost, lower risk development option. It’s like a mild form of land banking: the developer gets a bit of a return off the property, but in the long term they’ll expect to demolish the buildings and put something more substantial there. Ponsonby Central and City Works Depot are also examples of this.
But it’s not all doom and gloom, far from it. New housing projects keep getting announced, and there will be many more to come. Like the ones that came before, developers (and buyers) will have to take their chances as to what goes ahead and what doesn’t.
In many cases, the new launches show the Special Housing Area programme finally bearing fruit – projects like Fabric Of Onehunga, The Victor (Browns Bay) and Station 580 (Kingsland) are all SHAs. They join a large number of SHA projects which are already on the market, with some under construction.
Hypatia, in the second tranche of SHAs and (I think) the first apartment SHA to begin construction, back in Feb 2015. Image source: Bracewell Construction
We’re seeing the first signs of construction on other projects, too. This often starts small, by demolishing existing buildings or doing some earthworks. There’s also a large number of projects which are well underway, unremarked by the media but well covered in places like Skyscrapercity, where builders just keep plugging away towards the eventual completion.
As another sign of what’s coming up, here are the latest figures for building consents. The middle of the year was quite flat (i.e. no growth in consents vs 2015), but that’s coming back up again now.
In total, 9,960 homes were consented in Auckland in the last 12 months. That annual figure should hit 10,000 for 2016 – a bit of a benchmark, and also one of the targets in the Auckland Plan.
The Auckland Plan aims for Auckland to build 400,000 homes in 30 years, or about 13,000 per year. However, it recognised that it would take time to reach this level, and assumed that we’d average 10,000 per year in the first decade (2012-2021). We’re finally hitting that, halfway through the decade, so there’s obviously still a lot of scaling up to do. The target for the second decade (2022-2031) is 17,000 homes a year…
Caution: this post contains references to John Farnham.
I was updating the Development Tracker recently, and added another one to the list – 9 Farnham Street. It hasn’t made it off the starting blocks yet, despite a couple of attempts.
In 2008, and perhaps for some time before that, 9 Farnham Street was being advertised for a five-storey building, with three floors of office and two penthouse apartments:
Source: Google Streetview
The sign was still up in 2009, but sometime after that it was taken down. The GFC put a dampener on new development in a lot of places.
In April 2013, resource consent was granted for 14 apartments, but – shockingly – only 10 carparks. This raised the ire of some local residents, who had their story told in the Herald on 1st April, 2014, the best day of the year for airing public grievances. They decided that they were not gonna sit in silence, and nor were they gonna live with fear.
The three local residents were able to bolster their group with two elected representatives, who help to add gravitas to the obligatory photo of everyone standing in front of the site looking concerned, although sadly only one person out of five had their arms crossed.
A Parnell group is upset about approval for a big new apartment building, saying office workers’ cars already clog their street.
Farnham St residents Jill Tonks, Rosa Volz and Paul O’Connor are angry that a six-storey 14-unit block with only 10 carparks has been permitted to go ahead at 9 Farnham St after Auckland Council approved it on a non-notified basis.
Councillor Mike Lee and Waitemata Local Board member Christopher Dempsey are also concerned.
The article doesn’t specifically say what has the elected representatives “concerned” – maybe the non-notification, maybe the lack of parking, maybe the idea that anyone could put up a building on this pristine site. I’ll simply note that Mike Lee has frequently taken issue with plans or policies for new housing (to be fair, so have many other local representatives, although not to the same extent. Hopefully in the post-Unitary Plan era, we can start to move past this).
Anyway, if it’s the lack of parking that has Mike concerned, I hope that there is much more to concern him in the future. I see the number of new developments being marketed with few (or even no) carparks per unit as a positive sign, and I mean this in the nicest, wanting-to-make-society-as-well-off-as-possible kind of way.
Unfortunately, nothing has quite happened with this development yet. It seems like the apartments were on sale from Nov 2014 – Jul 2015, and were then taken back off the market (the real estate ad says the building has 18 carparks, funnily enough).
The proposed building which was marketed over 2014-2015.
The site changed hands in March this year, and no action since.
Unfortunately, the nature of our local democracy means that if you’re an existing resident with a strong current attachment to the area, you’re the voice. The potential residents – who, I should point out, are all someone’s daughter, all someone’s son – don’t get much chance to say whether they’d like to live there.
The version of the Unitary Plan released last week and recommended by the Independent Hearings Panel (IHP) almost doubled the number of dwellings that they believe can feasibly be built over the next 30 years. By far the biggest change comes from enabling more dwellings within the existing urban area which goes from 84,000 in the version of the plan notified in 2013 up to 270,000 in the IHP version, a massive 221% increase.
While some of the increase has come about as a result of changes in the rules, most of the change is a result of changing zoning. A presentation b the council on Wednesday highlighted the 270k increase in the existing urban area had mostly been achieved by:
- Retention of all residential zones and many of the rules
- Greater spatial application of Terraced Housing and Apartment Buildings (THAB), Mixed Housing Urban (MHU), Mixed Housing Suburban (MHS) across Auckland
- Location of higher density zones around town centres, along corridors and adjoining open space and schools
- Adoption of different walkable catchments for higher density zones – from 200-400m to 400-800m
- Retention of council’s position of no density controls in THAB and MHU
- Removal of density control from MHS
- Retention of zone heights
- In MHU and MHS, up to 4 dwelling units is a permitted activity (5 or more require a resource consent)
- Minor dwelling units up to 65m² permitted in Large Lot, Rural Coastal Settlement and Single House zones
- Removal of the relationships between the flood plains and Single House and Mixed House Suburban zones
- Areas previously subject to the pre-1944 overlay to be zoned similarly to surrounding areas.
In this post I thought I’d take a look at how the zoning has changed in some areas. First up, the colours used between the proposed plan and recommended plan have changed a little, the most important difference being that the MHS zoning is now a stronger colour and easier to differentiate from the Single House Zone
As a quick reminder, Single House and MHS are both limited to two storeys while MHU is limited to three storeys. Of all the zones where housing is allowed (the residential zones plus the centres and mixed use zones), around 69% of all the area is limited to two storeys and that increases to 88% at three storeys or less. In other words, only 12% of areas where people live can be greater than 3 storeys – a high rise city this will not be.
You can see that with the exception of the inner west and central isthmus (which are also mostly subject to a Special Character Overlay – but that’s another story), there is much less Single House zoning. this has mostly been replaced by MHS but you can also see a lot more THAB in and around Town Centres. There are some decent clusters allowed in the southern Isthmus in Owairaka, Three Kings and Royal Oak which would make great anchors for the proposed light rail lines. There is also more THAB allowed in other areas too, like Panmure where the Herald current favourite complaining couple are located – they should be happy their property is now worth more.
There are other little changes too such as around Morningside Train Station where the zoning has changed from mainly Light Industry to mainly Mixed Use which will allow a lot more people to live next to what will be one best located train stations after the CRL is completed.
The zoning on the isthmus is much better although I still think the IHP could have gone further in some areas.
The changes on the North Shore aren’t as pronounced as in other areas and most of the changes are tweaks around the edges.
The first thing you can immediately notice is the massive amount of extra Future Urban Zone land west of SH1. On the Whangaparaoa Peninsula there is a couple of small pockets of THAB at the Marina and a little bit in the middle of the peninsula but overall with it being almost exclusively Single House, there is very little new housing allowed which once again raises many questions about just how important an expensive project like Penlink is when there are a lot of other areas growing rapidly and which also need investment. I’m surprised there was’t more MHS in this area.
The west already had one of the better looking zoning from the proposed plan thanks to the local boards supporting density to a much greater extent that all of the other areas resulting in a high proportion of THAB and MHU. The Recommended plan has extended that further in some areas, such as the Te Atatu Peninsula. The IHP have also recommended zoning for the large Red Hills development area west of Westgate rather than having it as future urban land. We’re certainly going to need that NW Busway.
The main changes in the east appear to be in Pakuranga and up Pakuranga highway, both of which allow for more THAB to be built. All of this just makes AMETI even more important and at the very least, bus lanes up Pakuranga Rd.
There are some areas which see a decent amount of change, one such area is around Mangere Town Centre which outside of the centre itself, goes from MHS and in some cases even Single House to THAB and MHU. There is also more MHU and THAB in and around Otara. Further south there are other patches of upzoning and a few extra additions to the Future Urban Zone
Changes to zoning allows for more houses but that doesn’t mean they’ll all be taken up as not everyone is going to develop their land to the maximum allowed for under the plan and in many cases, the housing that exists today will still exist in 30 years time. That’s why the IHP have focused on having what they say is enough feasible enabled capacity and the changes in that are shown in the heat map below. One of the big differences you can see is in the west were the zoning allows for a lot of development but much of it isn’t considered feasible within the scale of this plan.
There’s a lot more detail to go into, even just comparing the differences in the maps. What are the things that you’ve noticed?
Arthur Grimes, the former chair of the Reserve Bank board, caused a stir with his proposal to crash Auckland house prices by 40% by building lots more housing:
My call for policies to drive a house price collapse is driven by my personal value judgement that it’s great for young families and families on lower incomes, to be able to afford to buy a house if they wish to do so. My concern is not for older, richer families, couples or individuals who already own their own (highly appreciated) house…
Research at Motu (accessible from www.motu.org.nz, and published in international scholarly journals) shows that (given current interest rates and incomes) a 1% increase in the number of dwellings relative to the population leads to a reduction in house prices of around 2.2%. Thus a 40% fall in house prices means that the number of dwellings in Auckland would have to expand by around 18% relative to the current dwelling stock. On top of that, the stock has to increase to reflect population growth. So with, 2% population growth per annum, the stock of dwellings in Auckland would have to increase by roughly 30% if prices were to fall by 40% over the next 6 years.
There are currently around 500,000 dwellings in Auckland. A 30% increase in dwelling numbers over 6 years translates into an extra 150,000 houses over that time – i.e. 25,000 extra houses per year for each of the next 6 years. This estimate contrasts with much smaller (and nonsensical) estimates of housing shortages that are often quoted. The reason is that those smaller estimates (e.g. 10,000 extra houses) would just leave prices where they are!
Now, I’m not quite as confident that the spillovers from a large drop in housing prices could be contained without significant effects on financial stability or the real economy. And there are definitely many challenges to technical feasibility, including zoning, infrastructure capacity, and availability of builders. But I fully agree with Arthur’s framework for thinking through supply and price dynamics.
It’s a welcome break from much of the usual commentary about the supply and demand balance in Auckland’s housing market. For example, it’s common to hear statements like, “Auckland’s population grew 22% between the 2001 and 2013 Censuses, while the number of dwellings in the city increased by 19%. Therefore we’re only 3% short.”
I’d describe this as the “quantity surveying” approach to market analysis – i.e. count up the number of people, count up the number of homes, and compare the difference. It’s not good economics, as it completely fails to consider:
- Desired outcomes from the housing market: As Arthur observes, an appropriate goal is for young people and low-income families to be able to access the housing market. We’re trying to achieve lower prices, not a certain ratio of dwellings to people.
- Underlying relationships between supply, demand, and prices: As Arthur points out, in order for prices to fall, the housing stock must be rising faster than population. Exactly how much faster depends upon the degree to which there is pent-up demand for housing that hasn’t been met in the past.
With that in mind, let’s take a closer look at Arthur’s figures. He argues that:
the stock of dwellings in Auckland would have to increase by roughly 30% if prices were to fall by 40% over the next 6 years… [which] translates into an extra 150,000 houses over that time – i.e. 25,000 extra houses per year for each of the next 6 years.
Why is an additional 30% increase in dwellings needed when Auckland’s population has only grown by around 30% over the last 15 years? Doesn’t that seem a bit too large?
From a quantity surveying perspective it does, but from an economic perspective, it’s totally sensible. To see why, we need to think about what rising housing prices mean. If the supply of a good – housing in this case – is constrained, prices must rise until some potential buyers give up and go elsewhere. In the Auckland housing market, that could mean:
- Moving elsewhere in New Zealand – surely a factor behind recent price rises in Hamilton, Tauranga, and beyond
- Moving overseas – a total loss of that person’s capabilities to the NZ economy
- Staying in Auckland and living in overcrowded or unsafe housing – which disadvantages them and costs the public health system and social agencies
- Living in a car or on the streets – it’s frankly appalling that I even have to mention this.
The fact that Auckland’s prices have been rising more rapidly than prices in the rest of the country (which are affected by the same bank lending conditions and macroeconomic trends as Auckland) is an indication that price-driven rationing is probably occurring. There is likely to be a significant amount of pent-up demand for Auckland housing – and if we figured out how to meet it, the city would get bigger. (Leading to, among other things, increased agglomeration economies.)
Finally, it’s worth discussing Arthur’s thoughts about where new housing should be constructed. He takes the SFBARF view: build absolutely everything everywhere:
So how can we get these extra houses and where can they go? Some people favour intensification and some favour expansion of the city’s footprint. The size of the task means that both are required.
Auckland is lucky that it has plenty of farmland around it and – contrary to popular myth – farmland is almost worthless in farming uses compared with residential use. Expansion is therefore required, but with a proviso. A change in the zoning of rural land to residential gives the existing landowner a massive uplift in value – i.e. a multi-million dollar gift from the community. To my mind, this value should accrue to the community that grants the zoning change. The Public Works Act could conceivably be used (or changed) to enable Council to buy rural land at a premium (say 50%) above the rural land value and then all extra value uplift would accrue to the Council to be used for infrastructure and services for the enlarged community.
Auckland also has plenty of opportunities for intensification in areas where developers would wish to intensify and where people wish to live. For instance, Tamaki Drive is ready made for high-rise apartments where tens of thousands of people would no doubt wish to purchase apartments. Of course climate change may make development on Tamaki Drive a risk, but a few blocks back from the sea – on the ridges overlooking the harbour – would work just as well. Lift the restrictions on the heights of new developments, and I expect that we would see an utter transformation in the intensity of housing from Orakei through to Glendowie.
Why can’t we do it with sprawl alone? There are two answers. The technical answer, which we’ve extensively covered on the blog in the past, is that new infrastructure to greenfield areas is expensive and time-consuming to develop. The time lag to intensify sites that are already served with infrastructure can be smaller, provided that consenting is straightforward.
However, the economic answer is, to my mind, even more important. Research into the determinants of property prices in Auckland consistently finds that proximity to the coast and proximity to the centre are two of the most important attributes for buyers. People value the amenities that come with coastal living – that’s a significant part of the attraction of being in Auckland – and they value the consumer amenities and employment accessibility that are concentrated in the centre.
A sprawl-only plan may work from a quantity surveying perspective – it would raise the ratio of dwellings to people – but it would mean growing away from the coast and away from the centre. The next swathes of farmland to be developed – east of Flat Bush, west of Orewa, and north of Kumeu – are all a long way inland.
This will work for some people, but for many it will miss the point of living in Auckland. If we are to meet growing demand, we will also have to think hard about how new residents will access to the city’s man-made and natural amenities.
Let’s start with a quick pop quiz: you’ve got an existing town centre that you want to improve, making it more vibrant and successful. Do you
A) Encourage more people to live locally who will use the town centre
B) Encourage more people to live locally who will use the town centre
C) Encourage more people to live locally who will use the town centre
D) Oppose people living nearby and worry about the cars trying to drive through and past your town centre being ever so slightly hindered.
If you answered A, B or C then correct, have a gold star, but it seems far too often our local boards reach for option D. The latest such example was a few days ago out west were the Waitakere Ranges Local Board have appeared opposing housing in Glen Eden.
Ten-storey towers of mostly one-bedroom flats have been proposed for suburban west Auckland, prompting local fears they will turn into slums.
Developers have applied for non-notifiable resource consent to build blocks of apartments in the centre of Glen Eden, adjacent to the railway tracks and cemetery.
Smaller dwellings and apartments have been touted by many as the future for Auckland and as one solution to the city’s housing crisis.
If given the go-ahead, the apartment blocks would house 168 one- or two-bedroom units and townhouses along with carparking, retail space and some outdoor space for residents.
The Waitakere Ranges Local Board said it was a radical proposal.
The plan for twin ten-storey towers raised many concerns especially as the height would be more than what was allowed for in the Unitary Plan, the board said.
“With most apartments being one bedroom the development will favour young residents. We would prefer to see some three-bedroom apartments and a greater mix of apartment sizes so that all stages of life are covered and a more mixed population live in the area.”
Let’s just think about some of this for a second
Firstly the proposal is right next to a train station and the town centre. That’s pretty much perfect and if anything the local board should be celebrating that. Furthermore it sounds like the closest neighbours are the residents of the cemetery. For some reason I hardly think they’re going to complain about a 10-storey apartment building nearby.
One of the oddest comments is the local board trying to get more three-bedroom apartments. If this were a brand new area or even perhaps the city I might agree that would be good – not that it should be regulated for. But this isn’t the city and is surrounded by many dwellings have 3 or more bedrooms. In fact I took a look at some of the numbers from Stats NZ and as of the last census in the areas in and around Glen Eden there were 10,881 dwellings for which they have details on bedrooms. Below is the number of dwellings by the number of bedrooms they have.
As you can see almost three-quarters of dwellings in area have three or more bedrooms. That is quite different to the population distribution where 48% of dwellings house only one or two residents while 68% have three or less. The graph below shows the number dwellings based on the number of usual residents and the number of bedrooms. The biggest single group is for two people to be living in a three bedroom home.
There are of course many factors that go into housing choice and it’s not for us, or anyone, to say how people should live but what this does suggest is that if there’s an imbalance in housing in the area it’s not from a lack of 3 bedroom dwellings but from not enough smaller ones. Furthermore the suggestion that small dwellings are only suitable for young people is utterly divorced from reality. Many older people enjoy the opportunity to live in smaller dwellings where they have less maintenance to deal with and can remain close to friends, family and the communities they’ve lived much of their lives in.
Then of course there is the almost stock standard response we’ve come to expect from so many in housing discussions.
In its submissions to the council, the Waitakere Ranges Local Board voiced concerns on potential traffic generated by Glen Eden’s proposed towers in an already heavily congested intersection.
The developer has requested its application not be made public, to which the board has objected.
Some west Auckland residents are worried about the proposal, saying there is already too much demand for parking in the area and that one-bedroom flats next to a railway line would inevitably turn into slums.
All of this brings us to the point that if we want local board to stop trying to oppose developments with spurious arguments, we probably need some better people on them. Today nominations have opened for local body elections later this year so if you or someone you know have been thinking of standing, why not give it a go.
Yesterday the Government announced its latest policy on addressing the housing crisis in Auckland and increasingly in other centres, a $1 billion infrastructure fund to pay for the bulk infrastructure needed to support *some* of the new houses needed in greenfield areas.
The Prime Minister today announced a new $1 billion Housing Infrastructure Fund to accelerate the supply of new housing where it’s needed most, Finance Minister Bill English and Building and Housing Minister Dr Nick Smith say.
The contestable fund will be open to applications from councils in the highest growth areas – currently Christchurch, Queenstown, Tauranga, Hamilton and Auckland.
Mr English says the Housing Infrastructure Fund will help bring forward the new roads and water infrastructure needed for new housing where financing is a constraint.
“The Government will invest up front to ensure the infrastructure is in place. But councils will have to repay the investment or buy back the assets once houses have been built and development contributions paid.”
As we know Auckland is growing at rate faster than any other region in the country – there are a few districts growing faster, such as Selwyn following the Earthquakes but they are also off a much lower base. The Q&A suggests that the high growth areas are defined as the areas expected to see a 10% growth in the 10 years to 2023. In that time frame, Stats NZ predictions suggest that Auckland will see 58% of the country’s population growth. That figure is even higher if just comparing the five areas listed with Auckland taking around 70% of that growth. As such we can expect the lion’s share of that $1 billion to be used in Auckland. Auckland’s growth over the following years doesn’t slow down either and in the 30 years to 2043 over 60% of all growth in NZ is expected in Auckland.
One big issue right from the start is that for those other cities, a share of $1 billion would go a long way. But in Auckland with its infrastructure needs on another scale, it would be gulped down so fast it would barely touch the sides. The recent work that AT and the NZTA have been doing on Transport for Future Urban Growth suggests that over 30 years around $10 billion is needed in the greenfield just for transport infrastructure. On top of more funding is needed for other physical and social infrastructure that will be required to ensure these new developments have the level of amenity that will be expected/required such as parks, community facilities and much more.
There is of course a lot more infrastructure that’s needed in Auckland but seems that only the greenfield stuff counts for this funding.
Dr Smith says the fund will be available only for substantial new infrastructure investments that support more new housing, not to replace existing infrastructure.
“To access the fund, local councils must outline how many new houses will be built, where they will be built and when they will be available. Ideally, they will have agreements with developers on these issues.
“Funding may also have other conditions attached, such as faster processing of resource consents. All of this will require close collaboration between central and local government.”
Mr English says infrastructure, and its financing in particular, is one of the three key constraints to building more houses – alongside land supply and consenting requirements.
“Councils have strict debt limits which means some lack the headroom to invest in infrastructure now and then wait for future development contributions to recover the costs. The fund will help provide more infrastructure sooner by aligning the cost to councils with the timing of revenue from development contributions.”
Depending on the number and timing of applications, it will require the Government to temporarily borrow up to $1 billion, which will increase net debt until it is repaid.
Only funding new infrastructure is kind of understandable but it does raise some questions, such as just what constitutes new infrastructure. In many cases building new roads or pipes also requires upgrading existing infrastructure to cope with the demands of new areas. We know we can’t just build tens of thousands of dwellings on the edge of town and expect the motorways to work. We also know that there are plenty of areas within the existing urban area for which replacing existing infrastructure is likely to be needed to enable new development. One such example would be the NW Busway which enables growth in existing urban areas such as Te Atatu but also will be critical in enabling growth in the entire North West.
I guess that if councils can assume this fund will pay for some of the greenfield growth they would have otherwise needed to build, it enables them to re-prioritise budgets to focus their normal funding on improving existing infrastructure.
One aspect I do like is the idea of linking funding to developments, the last thing we want is the council or government spending precious funds building infrastructure to an area only for a developer not to build anything and then profit off the increased land value. That of course also raises the question of why the government doesn’t just build a heap of homes themselves.
Perhaps the biggest issue with this announcement is that it’s not going to have any real short term impact. Even if the funding tap was turned on tomorrow – and it seems the details are yet to be worked out – the types of infrastructure projects that this fund will help deliver are not quick things to enable. They normally take years of planning, consenting and construction before any house can be built and so it will be many years before any housing this fund enables will have any impact on our current crisis.
Overall the fund seems useful but not quite as useful as the government’s headline suggest. A lot of it is going to end up coming down to the details and rules put in place and those have yet to be worked out. Ultimately the whole thing just seems like a way of loaning money to councils in a way that sits on their books differently. It will also be critical to see just what projects get built with this funding. If it just results in trying to quickly build a pile of auto-dependant sprawl that would be a terrible outcome but if it also is focuses on good quality outcomes such as decent walking, cycling and PT facilities it could be quite useful.
In addition to the infrastructure fund, the government have also said they’re looking at setting up urban development authorities.
Dr Smith says the Government is also considering establishing Urban Development Authorities (UDAs) to help further speed up the supply of new housing.
UDAs have streamlined powers to override barriers to large-scale development, including potentially taking responsibility for planning and consenting and other powers.
In some form or another we already have a few of these with the likes of Panuku Development Auckland, the Tamaki Redevelopment Company and the Hobsonville Land Company. How will a government UDA be different from these, with the possible exception of having the power to compulsory acquire land. If they did allow for compulsory acquisition it would be interesting to see if they also extended that to at least Panuku.
People sometimes worry that investors (or foreigners) are buying up properties and leaving them empty, speculating on capital gains instead – but if this is happening at all, it seems to be on a very minor scale. In a post last year, I looked at unoccupied homes in Auckland and other NZ cities, using census data. Most of them, including Auckland, had similar percentages of unoccupied homes – roughly 5% to 8%.
In this post, I’ve dug deeper, looking at the unoccupied homes figures for each Auckland suburb. I’ve also put together an interactive map showing the percentage of unoccupied homes for each area:
Across the Auckland region, there were 33,201 unoccupied dwellings on census night 2013. This sounds like a lot, but as per my earlier post, the fraction of homes that are vacant is pretty similar to other NZ cities, and to the other ‘snapshots’ taken in the 2001 and 2006 censuses.
Unsurprisingly, there are plenty of vacant homes on some of our offshore islands – Kawau, Great Barrier, Waiheke, with around 2,500 between them. Most of these, of course, are used as baches.
Most of the other ‘ghost areas’ are also bach hotspots – the highest percentage of vacant homes are in places like Leigh, Omaha, Snells Beach, Waiwera and Point Wells. Around 2,700 vacant homes are in these northern holiday/ lifestyle areas.
Still, most vacant homes in the Auckland region are in the urban area. This is what we’d expect given that’s where most of Auckland’s 507,000 dwellings are.
Within the city, Hobsonville stands out as an area with a lot of empty homes, presumably because many of the homes have just been built and not yet occupied. In fact, the Hobsonville East area unit had 363 occupied dwellings, 120 unoccupied, and another 18 under construction. That construction figure seems implausibly low, so my guess is that many of the “unoccupied” homes hadn’t actually been completed and certified yet, even if they looked habitable.
Auckland Central has 2,200 unoccupied dwellings, according to the 2013 census. It’s quite common for CBDs to have lower occupancy rates, due to several different factors:
- With a ready market of people wanting to stay in the CBD for a night, a week or a month, apartments are more likely to be rented out as short-term accommodation than a house in the suburbs
- Some people can afford to keep a CBD apartment for weekday or occasional use, and spend the rest of the time in a house elsewhere in Auckland, or somewhere else in New Zealand, or even overseas.
- Although legally everyone is supposed to fill out a census form, not everyone does. The ‘response rate’ is likely to be lower in the CBD (language barriers, privacy desires, age cohort factors etc), plus it’s harder for the census collectors to tell whether an apartment is occupied or not, compared to a house. Some apartments will have been incorrectly tagged as ‘unoccupied’.
In my previous post, I quoted North & South magazine, who give “Mt Albert and Mt Eden, Grey Lynn and Herne Bay” as examples of suburbs where ‘ghost houses’ are apparently common. But the census data doesn’t show that at all. Most of these suburbs are spectacularly normal. They have vacancy rates at very typical levels, in line with the averages for Auckland and other NZ cities. Herne Bay is slightly high at 9.1%, but it was 9.3% in 2006 and 7.9% in 2001. And those ‘higher’ rates seem to be typical for the wealthiest suburbs – Remuera is similar.
I initially thought that wealthier suburbs might be more likely to have unoccupied homes – since people living there might have more mobility, travelling overseas for example. However, there’s no evidence of this in the data. I’ve done a few really basic regressions, all of which fail to show a relationship between incomes and the percentage of unoccupied homes. Here’s one example:
Finally, I’m open to the idea that the number of empty homes has crept up since the 2013 census – that this is becoming an emerging issue – but it doesn’t seem likely. We’re not building enough homes, and there’s plenty of demand from people looking for places for to live (giving rise to issues like overcrowding). If anything, there’s more incentive to rent out an empty house now than there was in 2013. My two cents is that we need to put our energies elsewhere if we want to get the housing market into better shape.
New Zealand isn’t the only place to be concerned about empty homes. This article from Sydney uses 2011 census data for the city, similar to what I’ve done here. And this article from Melbourne uses a methodology I quite like – they’ve estimated the number of empty homes, based on homes with abnormally low water usage.
It’s been a little while since I wrote a “Development Update” post, and a lot has happened since then:
- The final batch of Special Housing Areas was approved.
- Downtown Shopping Centre has closed, and is about to be demolished. Tunnels for the City Rail Link will be built underneath, and the site will be redeveloped as Commercial Bay, an office tower and shopping centre.
- Speaking of the City Rail Link, it’s is now officially under construction.
- My count of homes which are currently “under construction” keeps edging up – it’s now up to 6,000, and that’s just for Auckland apartments and terraces.
- Several major buildings have been completed, including Urba Residences (144 apartments just off K Road), Unilodge on Whitaker (300 student apartments) and VXV Three (offices in Wynyard Quarter). Vinegar Lane keeps ticking away, with Countdown also open as of today.
- A number of new homes are now being marketed, such as NXN Apartments, Nugent Rise, The Eight, Eden Green and The International.
So, quite a bit then, and it’s all in the RCG Development Tracker, along with a host of other information on 700-odd projects.
It all adds up to a pretty big ‘pipeline’ of homes which are recently completed, under construction or being sold off the plans.
The tricky part is that, as I’ve written previously, the construction sector is getting really stretched. That’s worth a post of its own, which will happen in the next week. In the meantime, the government keeps finding it politically convenient to blame the Council for all of Auckland’s problems. Convenient it may be, but it’s not particularly helpful for Aucklanders.
Unfortunately, based on “building consent” numbers, Auckland has actually gone backwards in the last couple of months, in terms of the number of homes approved for building.
9,353 homes were consented in the year to April 2016, down from 9,534 in the year to February. The main reason is that apartment consents are volatile, and have had a couple of bad months. It’s a different picture than the top graph shows – that’s more of a “leading” indicator in a sense, so consents should come back up again.
None of it is enough, though, and if you want a bit more evidence:
- The Auckland Plan target is for the city to build 13,000 homes a year over the next 30 years.
- That includes an average of 10,000 homes a year in the first decade, which started in 2012 so we’re already playing catchup on that. Plus, as per the graph above, Auckland has only ever achieved 10,000 homes a year a few times, and that was when we were building far more apartments than we are currently.
- I’ve recently done some calculations that Auckland needs to build 14,000 homes a year to meet current demand (with immigration at its current high levels).
- We’d need at least 16,000 homes a year if not for the fact that Aucklanders have also been moving to other parts of New Zealand, which partly balances out the immigration from overseas.
- Most economic commentators think Auckland already has a shortage of 20,000 to 50,000 homes, which will take many years to address.
This is a huge challenge, although it probably looks pretty good if you’re a builder!
Housing issues in Auckland have become a fairly constant news piece in recent years and the affordability issue has become louder and louder. And it’s not just people wanting to buy a house either but also for renters as rental prices rise too, something that is particularly tough for those on low incomes.
We know that one of the key tools to helping unlock development in Auckland is of course the Unitary Plan – depending on what final form it takes. It reached a new milestone last Friday as the Independent Hearings Panel held its final hearing on it. The amount of work the panel has undertaken has been significant. There were 9443 submissions and 3951 further submissions. The hearings began in September 2014 and there have been 242 days of hearings and there were more than 10,000 pieces of evidence.
Between now and July they’ll be working on their final recommendations to the plan which will be voted on by the council. With elections coming up it’s anyone’s guess as to which way councillors will vote. One thing that does seem clear though is that pressure is increasing on them from the government, in particular Housing Minister Nick Smith.
On the weekend he told by both TVNZ’s Q&A and Newshub’s The Nation that he will be imminently releasing a National Policy Statement (NPS) under the RMA which will put pressure on the growing councils like Auckland to open up land.
“Next month I will be producing a national policy directive under the [Resource Management Act] that will put far tougher requirements on growing councils to ensure they are freeing up long-term the land that is required so that we don’t get into the sort of juggernaut that has been at the core of the unaffordable housing problems in Auckland.”
At first blush that sounds similar to the “throw open the gates” type statements he made when he was made housing minister however since that time he seems to have moderated some of his comments and gained a better understanding of some of the finer issues such as density restrictions that prevent intensification. As such I am hopeful that the NPS he’s developing will also address these constraints too.
I also hope the government consider the impacts on infrastructure as part of any policy. Just throwing open the land might sound like the immediate solution but that land also needs infrastructure to support it and that isn’t cheap. The Council, Auckland Transport and NZTA have been working on the Transport for Future Urban Growth which is planning for about 110,000 dwellings on greenfield land and just the major infrastructure is likely to cost around $8 billion.
Yesterday Smith also became a bit more personal calling Councillor Mike Lee a NIMBY, a hypocrite and part of the problem for opposing intensification in Herne Bay.
“Mike Lee is guilty of Nimbyism,” said Dr Smith.
The Government has designated the site of the old Gables pub a “special housing area”. That allows for fast-tracked development, with between four to seven of the apartments “affordable housing”. It’s about getting more housing into inner-Auckland’s “urban intensification”.
But neighbours don’t like it, and, local councillor Mr Lee is on their side. Mr Lee wrote earlier this year, saying the development was “overriding the civil rights of neighbouring property owners”.
Dr Smith responded, saying he found Mr Lee’s position “ironic”, “odd” and “part of the problem”.
“We cannot have that sort of Nimbyism. That’s at the core of where Auckland has gone wrong. That’s why I’ve politely written back to Mr Lee and said ‘actually, you are being a hypocrite’.”
Unfortunately, in many ways Nick Smith is right, over the last few years Mike Lee has fairly consistently voted against rules that would enable more housing, especially in the in inner suburbs.
John Key is also threatening the council and at his weekly press conference yesterday said:
The Prime Minister also warned that the Government would not be able to “sit back” if Auckland councillors did not deliver enough houses in the city.
Asked to elaborate, Mr Key said ministers would make announcements in this area soon.
Could the government ultimately force the Unitary Plan through if the councillors don’t approve it or worse could they install commissioners?
While I don’t agree with everything they’ve said, one positive is that the government have made some better noises around some housing issues. In saying that they also remain very quick to blame the council for the current issues when they need to take a share of the blame too. The reality is the Unitary Plan process is one the government created and more so, some of the ideas like an NPS could have been pushed years ago. Other tools that they’ve implemented such as the Special Housing Areas have resulted in at least some developers using it as a tool for to increase the value of their land-banking.
The bad news is that even if the government and council’s all do their bits well, our housing issues are something that could take decades to resolve. We’ll now have to await with interest to see what comes out of the budget and out of the NPS the government are preparing.